National RPS Progress
Currently, thirty states have a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) as of October 2011. REAP strongly urges other states to develop a renewable energy plan. Dirty fossil fuels like coal are no longer an option. We must move towards clean, job-creating energy sources like solar, wind, geothermal and biomass.
PHONY RPS GOALS
The states of Florida, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Virginia have voluntary RPS goals. REAP urges that these states create a mandatory RPS so that utilities and agencies are forced to comply.
Arizona: 15% by 2025
In 2006, the Arizona Corporation Commission introduced new energy standards. In order to offset the compliance by utilities in Arizona, an Environmental Portfolio Surcharge is added to the electric bills of customers. The Commission is responsible for assessing penalties for non-compliance.
California: 33% by 2020
California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law SB 2X in April 2011, which requires ALL utilities (both investor-owned and municipals) procure at least 33% renewable energy by 2020.
Colorado: 20% by 2020 / 10% by 2020 for municipals
Colorado’s RPS, which states that large investor-owned utilities must obtain 20% renewable electricity by 2020, “reaffirms [Colorado’s] commitment to maintaining national leadership in renewable energy development.” –Interwest Energy Allicance Executive Director Craig Cox stated. The RPS also allows utilities to own up to 25% of the required renewable energy without it being put up for a bid. Colorado was the first state to pass an RPS by initiative process.
Connecticut: 27% by 2020
On June 4th 2007, Governor M. Jodi Reli signed into law House Bill 7432, which expanded Connecticut’s previous RPS. Connecticut’s RPS breaks down the type of renewable energy into three separate classes. Class 1 sources include solar, wind, sustainable biomass, landfill gas, fuel cells, ocean thermal power, wave or tidal power, and run-of-the-river hydropower facilities with a maximum capacity of 5 MWs. Class 2 sources include trash-to-energy facilities, biomass facilities not included in Class 1 and certain hydropower facilities. Class 3 sources include customer-based efficiency programs and on site combined heat and power systems.
Delaware: 20% by 2019
In 2007, Delaware enacted Senate Bill 19, which expanded the states previous RPS. Senate Bill 19 requires that 2 percent of Delaware’s electricity supply come from solar photovoltaic by 2019. Other sources include hydroelectric facilities with a generating capacity of 30 megawatts as well as sustainable biomass, wind, ocean tidal and ocean thermal.
Hawaii: 20% by 2020
In 2004, Governor Linda Lingle enacted Senate Bill 2474, which requires the state’s public utilities provide 20% renewable electricity by 2020. There have been discussions for Hawaii to increase their RPS, but nothing has been done as of yet.
Iowa: 105 MW
Iowa’s RPS was adopted in 1983 and requires that investor-owned utilities produce a combined total of 105 megawatts. In 2001, Iowa’s governor established a voluntary goal of 1,000 MW of renewable electricity.Demand that Iowa’s legislature mandate and increase its RPS.
Illinois: 10% by 2015 / 25% by 2025
Illinois’ RPS was adopted in 2007 and requires that utilities produce 25% renewable electricity by 2025. Starting in 2008 with 2% by June 1st, 2008, 10% by June 1, 2015 and ending with 25% by 2025. RPS compliance is enforced by the Illinois Power Agency. In 2011, the Illinois Commerce Commission is scheduled to review the cost cap that is set at 2.015% by 2011 to ensure that the cap does not harm the procurement of renewable resources.
Maine: 40% by 2017
In 1999, the Public Utilities Commission of Maine adopted a renewable portfolio standard requiring that 30% of Maine’s electricity come from renewable resources by 2000. In 2006, Maine increased the target goal to 10% “new” renewable generation by 2017. In 2007, Maine made the target mandatory.
Maryland: 20% by 2022
Under Maryland’s RPS, there are two tiers: Tier 1 includes conventional technology like solar, wind and biomass. If an electricity provider fails to comply with the RPS, they must pay a fee which goes into the Maryland Renewable Energy Fund. This fund is administered by the Maryland Energy Administration and is used to make loans and grants in support of renewable energy programs and new energy sources within the state.
Massachusetts: 15% by 2020
Massachusetts’ focus now is on in-state renewable electricity generation. "Initially, When Massachusetts implemented a RPS in the late 1990’s, the state received a large amount from out-of-state renewable electricity." Massachusetts also enacted a mandatory “public benefits” charge on all electricity bills and currently generates about $40 million annually which is used for a variety of energy efficiency projects by the Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust.
Michigan: 10% by 2015
The Clean, Renewable, and Efficient Energy Act, S.B. 213, requires energy providers to meet a 10% renewable portfolio by 2015. This can be met through renewable energy credits, an increase in renewable energy generation as well as energy optimization. Up to 10% of Michigan’s RPS can be met with clean energy technologies.
Missouri: 15% by 2021
Voters approved the Missouri Clean Energy Initiative on November 4th, 2008. The proposal requires that IOUs (investor-owned utilities) increase their renewable energy generation to two percent total output by 2011, five percent by 2014, ten percent by 2018 and fifteen percent by 2021. Two percent must come from solar generation. The Clean Energy Initiative ramps up the goals of S.B. 54, which was enacted in 2007 and called on utilities to make a good-faith effort to generate 11% renewable energy electricity by 2021.Missouri’s modest RPS is not enough; demand that Missouri increase their RPS to match other states’ progress.
Montana: 15% by 2015
In 2005, Montana’s governor signed into law Senate Bill 415, which mandated that 15% of the state’s energy come from renewable resources by 2015. Sources of energy that count towards the RPS include wind, solar, geothermal, existing hydroelectric projects, wastewater-treatment gas, landfill or farm-based methane gas, and fuel cells in which hydrogen is produced from a renewable source.
Minnesota: 25% by 2025.
Minnesota’s RPS states that utilities are required to generate 25% renewable energy by 2025. Historically, Minnesota has been a key player in wind energy generation.
Nevada: 20% by 2015
In 1997, Nevada passed a Renewable Portfolio Standard which required electric providers to acquire renewable electricity to equal a total of 1% of total consumption. In 2005, the Nevada legislature, in response to the fact that both major utilities did not meet the goals set forth in the RPS, extended the deadline for penalties but also raised the requirements to 20% by 2015.
New Jersey: 22.5% by 2021
The New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (BPU) approved an expansion of the state’s renewable portfolio in 2006. Of the 22.5%, at least 2% must come from solar sources. Other sources include anaerobic digestion from food waste, tidal, wind, geothermal, methane gas captured from landfill.Keep a close watch on the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities and demand compliance.
New Hampshire: 23.8% by 2025
Before New Hampshire overwhelmingly passed a RPS, it was the only state in New England without a renewable standard. New Hampshire’s Sustainable Energy Association and many other environmental groups believed the passage of an RPS by the house was a step forward in the right direction.
New Mexico: 20% by 2020
In 2007, New Mexico passed SB 418, which sets strict goals for investor-owned utilities. SB 418 also establishes a standard of 15% renewable electricity generation for rural electric cooperatives. Renewable energy is defined as electric energy generated by low or zero-emissions generation.
New York: 24% by 2013
In 2004, the New York State Public Service Commission adopted a RPS which set the level of renewable energy required by utilities to 19.3 percent. As of June 2008, there was enough renewable energy generation to power 635,000 homes annually. There are many incentives within the RPS for homeowners and businesses to install renewable generation technology on-site.
North Carolina: 12.5% by 2021.
In 2007, North Carolina signed into law S.L. 2007-397, which establishes a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard. Under this law, electric public utility providers must meet a 12.5% renewable energy demand through renewable energy generation or energy efficiency measures. Electric membership corporations as well as municipalities have a goal of 10% by 2018. Alert: North Carolina’s RPS is too low...demand that North Carolina’s Utilities stop using dirty fossil fuels and increase their RPS.
Ohio: 25% by 2025 (12.5% alternative which can include clean coal technology)
Governor Ted Strickland signed Senate Bill 221 into law on May 1st, 2008. This law requires that at least 25 % of all electricity sold in Ohio must come from alternative energy resources. At least half, about 12.5% must come from in-state renewable energy generation like wind, solar, geothermal, hydropower, or biomass. Alternative energy resources include nuclear power plants, fuel cells, and energy-efficiency programs as well as clean coal technology. Utility companies must also achieve energy savings of 22.5% by 2025 as well as begin designing programs to reduce peak energy demand one percent each year beginning in 2009.
Oregon: 25% by 2025
Oregon’s renewable portfolio standard was formed around the research and deliberation of the Renewable Energy Work Group (REWG). Oregon’s RPS requires the largest utilities in Oregon to provide 25% of their retail sales of electricity from “newer, cleaner, renewable sources” by 2025. Smaller utilities have similar but lesser obligations to meet goals. BEWARE of large-scale hydro! Don’t let Oregon’s RPS fool you!
Pennsylvania: 8.5% by 2020 (10% can include waste coal and large hydro)
In 2004, Governor Edward Rendell signed the Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, which requires Pennsylvania utilities to provide 18.5% by 2020. Pennsylvania’s energy standard consists of two tiers. Tier 1 sources must make up 8% of the portfolio and sources include solar, wind, COALMINE methane, small hydro, geothermal, and biomass. Tier 2 sources must make up 10% of the standard and can include large hydropower, WASTE COAL, COAL INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE, and municipal solid waste. Pennsylvania continues to allow coal technologies as a solution to the climate crisis.
Rhode Island: 16% by 2019
In 2004, Governor Donald Carcieri signed into law the Clean Energy Act, which requires state electricity retailers to sell at least 3% of their electricity from renewable resources by 2006. The percentage rises 1% each year thereafter, resulting in 16% by 2020. The Rhode Island Public Utility Commission is authorized to revise the schedule after 2013. Existing renewable energy resources can only account for 2% of the required amount of renewables. Keep a close watch on the Public Utility Commission so that they stay on track and revise the RPS schedule by 2013.
Texas: 5,880 MW by 2025/10,000 MW by 2025
Texas has surpassed their RPS goal, reaching their 10 year target in only 6 years. The Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) is responsible for enforcing the penalties for non-compliance, but they also can suspend the standard in order to protect the reliability of the electric grid.
Washington, D.C.: 20% by 2022
In 2005, the District of Columbia’s Council enacted Bill A15-755, which requires 11% of the electricity sold in the District come from renewable resources by 2022. In 2008, the RPS was amended which significantly increased the renewable energy percentage from 11% to 20%. In August 2011, the percentage of solar was increased to 2.50% by 2023.
Wisconsin: 10% by 2015
Senate Bill 459, or the Energy Efficiency and Renewables Act, requires utilities to produce 10% of their electricity from renewable resources. Senate Bill 459 also requires more energy efficiency by state government which also includes higher energy efficiency standards. Small hydro of less than 60 MW is also included as a renewable energy resource that can be used towards the RPS.
Washington: 15% by 2020
Washington’s RPS was passed by initiative process in 2006 by a margin of 51.5% to 48.5%. Washington’s RPS requires only qualifying utilities to comply and produce more renewable energy, beginning at 3%. A qualifying utility is a public or private utility company that serves more than 25,000 customers.
Vermont: Equal to load growth between 2005-2012
Governor Jim Douglas of Vermont adopted a RPS mandate which requires utilities in the state to meet any new load growth. The level of renewable energy is capped at 10%. Under the RPS law, the Public Service Board (PSB) will review the current RPS.